Agro-based industries in India

Textile Industry:
Q.9 Why the textile industry occupies unique position in the Indian economy?
Ans. The significance of textile industry in India can be judged by
i. It contributes 14 percent to industrial production.
ii. It provides and generates employment for 35 million persons directly.
iii. It earns 25 per cent of foreign exchange.
iv. It contributes 4 per cent towards GDP.
v. It is the only industry in the country, which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain i.e., from raw material to the highest value added products.

Cotton Textiles:
Q.10 How was the cotton textiles produced in ancient India?
Ans. In ancient India, cotton textiles were produced with hand spinning and handloom weaving techniques. After the 18th century, power-looms came into use.

Q.11 Why our traditional cotton textile industries suffered a setback during colonial rule?
Ans. Our traditional industries suffered a setback during the colonial period because they could not compete with the mill-made cloth from England.

Q.12 When was the first textile mill established in India?
Ans. The first successful textile mill was established in Mumbai in 1854.

Q.13 Why in early years the cotton textile industry was concentrated in the states of Gujarat and Maharashtra?
Ans. In the early years, the cotton textile industry was concentrated in the cotton growing belt of Maharashtra and Gujarat. Availability of raw cotton, market, transport including accessible port facilities, labour, moist climate, etc. contributed towards its localisation.

Q.14 State the importance of cotton textile industry in India.
Ans. Cotton textile industry is an important industry of India.
i. Cotton textile industry has close links with agriculture.
ii. It provides a living to farmers, cotton boll pluckers and workers engaged in ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, designing, packaging, tailoring and sewing.
iii. The handspun khadi provides large scale employment to weavers in their homes as a cottage industry.
iv. This industry creates demands and supports many other industries, such as, chemicals and dyes, mill stores, packaging materials and engineering works.
v. India exports yarn to Japan. Other importers of cotton goods from India are U.S.A., U.K., Russia, France, East European countries, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and African countries.
vi. India has the second largest installed capacity of spindles in the world, next to China.

Q.15 Give two differences between spinning and weaving of cotton yarns in India.
Ans. Spinning and weaving are the two important component of cotton textile industry:
i. While spinning continues to be centralised in Maharashtra, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu, weaving is highly decentralized in other states.
ii. India has world class production in spinning, but weaving supplies low quality of fabric.

Q.16 Mention the major drawbacks and problems of cotton textile industry in India.
Ans. Cotton textile industry in India suffers from some problems:
i. The world trade of cotton yarn (25%) is much larger than the trade of cotton garments (4%).
ii. Our spinning mills are competitive at the global level but the weaving, knitting and processing units cannot use much of the high quality yarn that is produced in the country.
iii. Most of the textile production is in fragmented small units, which cater to the local market.
iv. Many of our spinners export cotton yarn while apparel/garment manufactures have to import fabric.
v. We need to import good quality staple cotton.
vi. Power supply is erratic.
vii. Machinery needs to be upgraded in the weaving and processing sectors in particular.
viii. Low output of labour and stiff competition with the synthetic fibre industry.

Jute Textiles

Q.17 Why most of our jute mills are located along the banks of the Hugli River?
Ans. Factors responsible for their location in the Hugli basin are:
i. Proximity of the jute producing areas,
ii. Inexpensive water transport,
iii. Supported by a good network of railways, roadways and waterways to facilitate movement of raw material to the mills,
iv. Abundant water for processing raw jute,
v. Cheap labour from West Bengal and adjoining states of Bihar, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh.
vi. Kolkata as a large urban centre provides banking, insurance and port facilities for export of jute goods.

Q.18 State the importance of jute textile industry in India.
Ans. The Jute industry
i. The jute industry supports 2.61 lakh workers directly.
ii. It also supports another 40 lakhs small and marginal farmers who are engaged in cultivation of jute and mesta.
iii. India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods and stands at second place as an exporter after Bangladesh.

Q.19 What are the challenges faced by the jute industry in India?
Ans. Challenges faced by the industry are:
i. Stiff competition in the international market from synthetic substitutes.
ii. Stiff competition from other competitors like Bangladesh, Brazil, Philippines, Egypt and Thailand.
iii. Internal demand of jute products is low. However, the internal demand has been on the increase due to the Government policy of mandatory use of jute packaging.
iv. The jute productivity and the quality is equally low in India.
v. The farmers don’t get good prices of jute crops.

Q.20 What are the objectives of the National Jute Policy formulated in 2005?
Ans. The National jute policy was formulated in 2005 for:
i. To stimulate demand by diversifying the products.
ii. Increasing productivity,
iii. Improving quality,
iv. Ensuring good prices to the jute farmers
v. Enhancing the yield per hectare.

Q.21 Name any four countries to which we export Jute products.
Ans. The main markets are U.S.A., Canada, Russia, United Arab Republic, U.K. and Australia.

Sugar Industry

Q.22 Explain the factors which influence the location of sugar industry in India.
Ans. The important factors influencing the location of this industry are:
i. Sugar industry is ideally located in the sugarcane growing regions of India because-
ii. The raw material, sugarcane, used in this industry is bulky and difficult to transport at low costs.
iii. In transport the sucrose content in the sugarcane reduces.
iv. In cooler climates the crushing season is longer.
v. Most of the Sugar mills in the country are in two states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Other important states are Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat.

Q.23 Why the sugar industry is ideally suited to the cooperative sector?
Ans. The sugar industry is seasonal in nature so, it is ideally suited to the cooperative sector. Crushing of sugarcane is limited to days which are cooler and sugarcane grows well during hot and humid climates only.

Q.24 Why in recent years the sugar mills have shifted to southern and western states?
Ans. The sugar mills in recent years have shifted and concentrated in the southern and western states, especially in Maharashtra, This is because
i. The cane produced here has higher sucrose content.
ii. The cooler climate also ensures a longer crushing season.
iii. The cooperatives are more successful in these states.

Q.25 What are the major challenges faced by the sugar industry in India?
Ans. The major challenges include:
i. The seasonal nature of the industry,
ii. Old and inefficient methods of production,
iii. Transport delay in reaching cane to factories
iv. The need to maximise the use of baggase.