Chemical and Automobile industries in India

Chemical Industries

Q.34 Mention two types of chemical industries in India. Give four examples of each.
Ans. Chemical industries consist of inorganic and organic chemicals.
i. Inorganic chemicals include sulphuric acid (used to manufacture fertilisers, synthetic fibres, plastics, adhesives, paints, dyes stuffs), nitric acid, alkalies, soda ash (used to make glass, soaps and detergents, paper) and caustic soda.
ii. Organic chemicals include petrochemicals, which are used for manufacturing of synthetic fibers, synthetic rubber, plastics, dye-stuffs, drugs and pharmaceuticals.

Q.35 Why the organic chemical industries are located near oil refineries where as inorganic chemical industries are spread all over India?
Ans. The organic chemical industries get their raw materials from byproducts of mineral oil which is processed and refined at oil refineries therefore these industries are located near oil refineries. Whereas the raw material for inorganic chemicals comes from other sources therefore they are not concentrated around one place.

Fertiliser Industry

Q.36 Name important fertilizers produced in the fertilizer industry.
Ans. The fertiliser industry produce
i. Nitrogenous fertilizers (mainly urea),
ii. Phosphatic fertilizers
iii. Ammonium phosphate (DAP)
iv. Complex fertilizers which have a combination of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), and potash (K).

Q.37 Name the only fertiliser plant in cooperative sector in India.
Ans. The only fertiliser plant in cooperative sector is at Hazira in Gujarat under the Fertiliser Corporation of India.

Q.38 Give one reason for the expansion of fertiliser industry in India.
Ans. Fertilizer industry expanded after the introduction of Green Revolution in the agriculture sector. The industry expanded to several parts of the country. Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Kerala produces half the fertiliser production.

Cement Industry

Q.39 Which factors has prompted an expansion in the cement industry in India?
Ans. Cement is considered essential for:
i. Construction activity such as building houses, factories, bridges, roads, airports, dams and for other commercial establishments.
ii. Decontrol of price and distribution since 1989
iii. Other government policy reforms led the cement industry to make rapid strides in capacity, process, technology and production.

Q.40 Why the cement industry is concentrated in Gujarat?
Ans. Cement industry requires:
i. Bulky and heavy raw materials like limestone, silica, alumina and gypsum.
ii. Coal and electric power are needed as source of energy.
iii. Therefore this industry is set up near source of raw material and power for which it needs good rail transportation.
iv. Gujarat has suitable access to the market in the Gulf countries for the export of cement.

Automobile Industry

Q.41 Which factors lead to the growth of Automobiles industry?
Ans. Automobile industry expanded due to:
i. Liberalization and the coming in of new and contemporary models stimulated the demand for vehicles in the market.
ii. This industry had experienced a jump due to Foreign Direct Investment brought in new technology and aligned the industry with global developments.
iii. At present, there are 15 manufacturers of passenger cars and multi-utility vehicles, 9 of commercial vehicles, 14 of the two and three-wheelers.
iv. The industry is located around Delhi, Gurgaon, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur and Bangalore.

Information Technology and Electronics Industry

Q.42 Which city of India is known as the electronic capital of India?
Ans. Bangalore.

Q.43 Name the products of electronic industry.
Ans. The electronics industry covers a wide range of products from transistor sets to television, telephones, cellular telecom, pagers, telephone exchange, radars, computers and many other types of equipment required by the telecommunication industry.

Q.44 What are software technology parks?
Ans. The software technology parks provide single window service and high data communication facility to software experts.

Q.45 What is the significance of IT industry?
Ans. The significance of IT industry can be judged by:
i. It is the major employment generating industry of India. Upto 31 March 2005, the IT industry employed over one million persons.
ii. This number is expected to increase eight-fold in the next 3 to 4 years.
iii. It is encouraging to know that 30 per cent of the people employed in this sector are women.
iv. This industry has been a major foreign exchange earner in the last two or three years because of its fast growing Business Processes Outsourcing (BPO) sector.