Control of environmental degradation



Control of Environmental Degradation

Q.50 How can the industrial pollution of fresh water be reduced?
Ans. Industrial pollution and degradation can be controlled by:
i. Minimizing use water for processing by reusing and recycling it in two or more successive stages.
ii. Harvesting of rainwater to meet water requirements.
iii. Treating hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds.
iv. Overdrawing of ground water reserves by industry where there is a threat to ground water resources also needs to be regulated legally.
v. Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smoke stacks to factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators.
vi. Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal in factories.
vii. Machinery and equipment can be used and generators should be fitted with silencers.
viii. Almost all machinery can be redesigned to increase energy efficiency and reduce noise.
ix. Noise absorbing material may be used apart from personal use of earplugs and earphones.
Q.51 Explain the three phase of treatment of industrial effluents.
Ans. Treatment of industrial effluents can be done in three phases.
i. Primary treatment by mechanical means. This involves screening, grinding, flocculation and sedimentation.
ii. Secondary treatment by biological process
iii. Tertiary treatment by biological, chemical and physical processes. This involves recycling of wastewater.