Industrial pollution and environmental degradation


Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation

Q.46 Name the four types of pollution caused by industries.
Ans. Industries are responsible for four types of pollution: (a) Air (b) Water (c) Land (d) Noise.
Q.47 What is air pollution? Explain how air pollution is caused by the industries. What are the effects of air pollution?
Ans. Air pollution is caused by the presence of high proportion of undesirable gases, such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide.
Air pollution is caused by
i. Airborne particulate materials which contain both solid and liquid particles like dust, sprays mist and smoke.
ii. Smoke is emitted by chemical and paper factories, brick kilns, refineries and smelting plants, and burning of fossil fuels in big and small factories that ignore pollution norms.
iii. Toxic gas leaks can be very hazardous with long-term effects. Example the Bhopal Gas tragedy.
Air pollution adversely affects human health, animals, plants, buildings and the atmosphere as a whole.
Q.48 How is water and land pollution caused? Which industries causes the water and land pollution? What are the effects of water and land pollution?
Ans. Water and land pollution is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and affluents discharged into rivers and pits.
The main industries which cause water and land pollution are:
i. paper, pulp, chemical, textile and dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries and electroplating industries that let out dyes, detergents, acids, salts and heavy metals like lead and mercury pesticides, fertilisers, synthetic chemicals with carbon, plastics and rubber, etc. into the water bodies.
ii. Fly ash, phospo- gypsum and iron and steel slags are the major solid wastes in India.
iii. Thermal pollution of water occurs when hot water from factories and thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling.
The effects are:
i. Wastes from nuclear power plants, nuclear and weapon production facilities cause cancers, birth defects and miscarriages.
ii. Dumping of wastes specially glass, harmful chemicals, industrial effluents, packaging, salts and garbage renders the soil useless.
iii. Rain water percolates to the soil carrying the pollutants to the ground and the ground water also gets contaminated.
Q.49 Which industrial units cause noise pollution? What are the effects of noise pollution?
Ans. Main source of noise pollution are:
i. Industrial and construction activities,
ii. machinery, factory equipment,
iii. generators, saws
iv. pneumatic and electric drills.
Noise pollution not only results in irritation and anger, it can also cause hearing impairment, increased heart rate and blood pressure among other physiological effects. Unwanted sound is an irritant and a source of stress.