Means of Transportation: Land Transport

1. Why means of transport and communication are called lifelines of our national economy?
i. They help in increasing cooperation and assistance between countries.
ii. They help in easy movement of goods and material between countries.
iii. They help in trade and commerce within country.
iv. They have reduced distances thus bringing the world closer.
v. They help in both production and distribution of goods.
vi. They help in movement of large number of people and over long distance.
2. Why transport routes or channels are called basic arteries of our economy?
i. They provide important links between producers and consumers of goods.
ii. They bring people very close to one another.
iii. In our greatly diversified economic, social and cultural society they promote interdependence among people.

3 Why the importance of road transport vis-à-vis rail transport is growing in India?
Ans. In India, roadways have preceded railways. The growing importance of road transport vis-à-vis rail transport is rooted in the following reasons;
i. Construction cost of roads is much lower than that of railway lines,
i. Roads can traverse comparatively more dissected and undulating topography, R
ii. Roads can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and as such can traverse mountains such as the Himalayas,
iii. Road transport is economical in transportation of few persons and relatively smaller amount of goods over short distances,
iv. It also provides door-to-door service, thus the cost of loading and unloading is much lower,
v. Road transport is also used as a feeder to other modes of transport such as they provide a link between railway stations, air and sea ports.

4. Six classes of roads in India according to their capacity.

i. Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways:
a. It’s a major road development project linking Delhi-Kolkata-Chennai-Mumbai and Delhi by six-lane Super Highways.
b. The North-South corridors linking Srinagar (Jammu & Kashmir) and Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu), and East-West Corridor connecting Silcher (Assam) and Porbander (Gujarat) are part of this project.
c. They are made to reduce the time and distance between the mega cities of India.
ii. National Highways:
a. National Highways link all Major cities of extreme parts of the country.
b. These are the primary road systems and are maintained by the Central Public Works Department (CPWD).
c. The National Highway 7 between Varanasi and Kanyakumari is the longest highway of India.
iii. State Highways:
a. Roads linking a state capital with different district headquarters are known as State Highways.
b. These roads are constructed and maintained by the State Public Works Department (PWD) in State and Union Territories.
iv. District Roads:
a. These roads connect the district headquarters with other places of the district. These roads are maintained by the Zila Parishad.
v. Other Roads:
a. Rural roads, which link rural areas and villages with towns, are classified under this category.
b. Under the Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana scheme special provisions are made so that every village in the country is linked to a major town in the country by an all season motorable road.
vi. Border Roads:
a. Border Roads Organisation constructs and maintains roads in the bordering areas of the country.
b. These roads are of strategic importance in the northern and northeastern border areas.
c. These roads have improved accessibility in areas of difficult terrain and have helped in the economic development of these areas.

5. Problems of Road transport:
i. Road transportation in India is inadequate keeping in view the volume of traffic and passengers.
ii. About half of the roads are unmettaled and this limits their usage during the rainy season.
iii. The National Highways are inadequate too.
iv. Moreover, the roadways are highly congested in cities
v. Most of the bridges and culverts are old and narrow.


6. Importance of Railways in India.
i. They are the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India.
ii. Railways also make it possible to conduct different activities like business, sightseeing, and pilgrimage along with transportation of goods over longer distances.
iii. Indian Railways plays a role of national integration.
iv. Railways in India bind the economic life of the country as well as accelerate the development of the industry and agriculture.
v. The Indian Railways is the largest public sector undertaking in the country.

7. Factors which influence the distribution pattern of Railway network in India:
The distribution pattern of the Railway network in the country has been largely influenced by physiographic, economic and administrative factors.
i. The density railway network is high in the northern plains because they are vast level land, have high population density and rich agricultural resources. But, a large number of rivers create obstacles because it requires construction of bridges across their wide beds.
ii. In the hilly terrains of the peninsular region, railway tracts are laid through low hills, gaps or tunnels therefore it difficult to construct railway lines.
iii. The Himalayan mountainous regions too are unfavourable for the construction of railway lines due to high relief, sparse population and lack of economic opportunities.
iv. It was difficult to lay railway lines on the sandy plain of western Rajasthan, swamps of Gujarat, forested tracks of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa and Jharkhand.
v. Sinking of track in some areas and land slides makes it difficult for railways.

8. Problems of Indian Railways:
i. Many passengers travel without tickets.
ii. Thefts and damaging of railway property has not yet stopped completely.
iii. People stop the trains, pull the chain unnecessarily and this causes heavy damage to the railway.


9. Importance of Pipelines in India:
i. In the past, these were used to transport water to cities and industries.
ii. Now, these are used for transporting crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas from oil and natural gas fields to refineries, fertilizer factories and big thermal power plants.
iii. Solids can also be transported through a pipeline when converted into slurry.
iv. Because of pipelines refineries like Barauni, Mathura, Panipat and gas based fertilizer plants could be located in the interiors of India.
v. Initial cost of laying pipelines is high but subsequent running costs are minimal.
vi. It rules out trans-shipment (during transportation) losses or delays.

10. Three important networks of pipeline transportation in the country:
i. From oil field in upper Assam to Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh).
ii. From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab,
iii. Gas pipeline from Hazira in Gujarat connects Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh,