Mineral based industries in India


Iron and Steel Industry

Q.26 Why the iron and steel industry is called the basic industry?
Ans. The iron and steel Industry is the basic industry because:
i. All the other industries — heavy, medium and light, depend on it for their machinery.
ii. Steel is needed to manufacture a variety of engineering goods, construction material, defence, medical, telephonic, scientific equipment and a variety of consumer goods.
iii. Iron and steel is a heavy industry because all the raw materials as well as finished goods are heavy and bulky. It involves heavy transportation costs.
Q.27 Name the raw material needed to produce the steel.
Ans. Iron ore, coking coal and lime stone are required in the ratio of approximately 4: 2: 1. Some quantities of manganese, are also required to harden the steel.
Q.28 Explain why most the iron and steel industry are concentrated in Chotanagpur plateau region.
Ans. Chotanagpur region has relative advantages such as:
i. This region is rich in the raw material needed to produce the steel such as iron ore, coal, limestone, etc.
ii. These raw material are heavy and bulky therefore difficult and costly to transport to the plant.
iii. This region has well connected railway lines which offer easy transportation of the finished products for their distribution to the markets and consumers.
iv. This region gets its power supply from Damodar valley.
v. Availability of cheap labour from surrounding regions.
Q.29 Explain why India is not able to produce steel as per its full potential.
Ans. Though, India is an important iron and steel producing country in the world yet, we are not able to perform to our full potential largely due to:
(a) High costs and limited availability of coking coal
(b) Lower productivity of labour
(c) Irregular supply of energy and
(d) Poor infrastructure.
Q.30 Give one point of difference and similarity between mini and integrated steel plants.
Ans. Difference: Mini steel plants are smaller, have electric furnaces, use steel scrap and sponge iron. They produce mild and alloy steel of given specifications. An integrated steel plant is large, handles everything in one complex – from putting together raw material to steel making, rolling and shaping.
Similarity: both plants produce steel.

Aluminium Smelting

Q.31 Which characteristics of aluminium make it most important metal?
Ans. Aluminium smelting is the second most important metallurgical industry in India.
i. It is light, resistant to corrosion, a good conductor of heat, mallable and becomes strong when it is mixed with other metals.
ii. It is used to manufacture aircraft, utensils and wires.
iii. It has gained popularity as a substitute of steel, copper, zinc and lead in a number of industries.
Q.32 Mention two most important factors which influence the location of this aluminium industry.
Ans. Bauxite, the raw material used in the industry is a very bulky.
i. Regular supply of electricity for electrolysis.
ii. Assured sources of raw material at minimum cost are the two prime factors for location of the industry.
Q.33 How many tons of bauxite is needed to produce one ton of aluminium?
Ans. To produce one ton of aluminium 4 to 6 tons of bauxite is needed.